What Does it Mean to”Offer it Up?”


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How to pray for loved ones that have passed on

How to pray for loved ones that have passed on

From About.com

By Scott P. Richert, Catholicism Expert

A number of spiritual practices that were very common in the past have been neglected in recent decades. As belief in the doctrine of Purgatory has waned, fewer people pray for the Holy Souls—those who died in a state of grace, but without having fully atoned for their sins. And far fewer people engage in the practice of “offering it up”—offering up our daily sufferings, toil, and stress for the good of these souls in Purgatory.Continue Reading Below Pope Benedict XVI referred to this practice in his weekly Angelus address on Sunday, November 4, 2007:Truthfully, the Church invites us to pray for the dead every day, offering also our sufferings and difficulties that they, once completely purified, might be admitted to enjoy the light and peace of the Lord for all eternity.(It’s no coincidence that Pope Benedict discussed this in November, the Month of the Holy Souls in Purgatory—it’s a good month to make a daily effort to establish the habit of “offering it up.”)

We Benefit, Too, by Helping the Holy Souls

When we offer up our daily sufferings, we benefit, too, because we learn better to cope with the challenges of our daily life. Whenever we find ourselves in a bad situation, we should remind ourselves that we’re offering it up for the Holy Souls, because the merit of our offering increases when we cope with the situation with Christian charity, humility, and patience.

A Great Practice to Teach Your Children

Children, too, can learn to “offer it up,” and they’re often eager to do so, especially if they can offer up the trials of childhood for a beloved grandparent or other relative or friend who has died.Continue Reading BelowIt’s a good way to remind them that, as Christians, we believe in life after death and that, in a very real sense, the souls of the dead are still with us. That’s what the “Communion of Saints” that we refer to in the Apostles’ Creed (and every other Christian creed) means.

How Do You “Offer It Up”?

In the most general sense, any prayer or intention to “offer it up” is sufficient. Simply stop at a moment of stress, or as you enter into a situation that you know will be stressful, make the Sign of the Cross, and say something like, “O Jesus, I offer up my struggles and sacrifices today for the relief of the Holy Souls in Purgatory.”A better way, though, is to memorize a Morning Offering (or to keep a copy of it near your bed), and to say it when you first wake up. Traditionally, the Morning Offering, along with the Our Father and the Act of Faith, the Act of Hope, and the Act of Charity, were the centerpieces of Catholic morning prayers. In the Morning Offering, we dedicate our entire day to God, and we promise to offer up our sufferings throughout the day for the souls in Purgatory.

Source URL: http://catholicism.about.com/b/2013/11/08/offering-it-up.htm?utm_content=20151110&utm_medium=email&utm_source=exp_nl&utm_campaign=list_catholicism&utm_term=list_catholicism

Project Aims to Ease Congestion on Route 66


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Cajon, Devore, by Chuck Harvey – CEG Correspondent

Route 66

Route 66

Near the bottom of San Bernardino County’s Cajon Pass, work is proceeding on the Devore Interchange Project at the intersection of California’s I-15 and I-215 freeways.

The project is designed to reduce congestion and accidents at the interchange, which is described as one of the worst grade-related bottleneck spots in the United States.

The heavily-traveled interchange is used by freight-carrying trucks, recreational vehicles and commuters from Southern California to Victorville, the Colorado River and Las Vegas.

The project includes construction of truck by-pass lanes and additional lanes for commuters. Construction also features re-connection of famed Route 66 along the interchange.

Tyeisha Prunty, public information officer of Caltrans, explained that construction spans about 2 mi. (3.2 km) of I-15 and slightly less than 2 mi. of I-215.

Commuters driving on Route 66 near the interchange will no longer face a gap in the historic roadway from Kenwood Avenue to Devore Road. Motorists should find less congestion along the old Route 66.

“Motorists will find continuous access where Route 66 turns into Cajon Boulevard,” Prunty said. “That will have a major impact on area commuters.”

Caltrans is the lead agency for the $324 million Devore Interchange Project, started in June 2013 and slated for completion in mid-2016. The Devore Interchange Project is a design-build endeavor.

Design-Build Speeds Delivery

Contractor for the work is Atkinson Construction of Irvine, Calif.

John Harrington, vice president of Atkinson Construction’s Southern California office, confirms the project is on track and will likely complete ahead of schedule.

Harrington stated the design-build concept utilized by Caltrans to procure the project, encourages innovation and generally expedites project delivery without swelling the program budget.

The fast progress is good news for initial planners who saw a definite need for modern-day improvements at the much-used interchange. Recognizing that need, Caltrans and San Bernardino Associated Governments (SANBAG) worked together to develop the project.

Caltrans reported that 56 percent of project funding comes from state sources. Local funding covers 24 percent and federal funds cover the remaining 20 percent.

Interstate 15 is a major highway that runs in a north-south direction through San Bernardino, Riverside and San Diego counties. I-215 is a supplementary route of I-15 that runs to the east of I-15 and connects cities in San Bernardino and Riverside counties.

More than 1 million vehicles per week pass through the interchange with as many as 160,000 cars and trucks traveling though the junction on a daily basis.

As part of the project, the interchange will be reconfigured. The project includes work on I-15 from 2.3 mi. (3.7 km) south to 2 mi. north on the interchange. Construction on I-215 starts from 1 mi. (1.6 km) south to the I-15/I215 interchange.

One lane will be added each way on I-15 between Glen Helen Parkway and I-215. Also, 2 mi. of truck bypass lanes are being added to separate slow-moving trucks from traffic moving through the interchange.

Extensive Concrete Work

The project includes construction of 30 retaining walls, including one almost .5 mi. (.80 km) long. Workers will construct a total of seven new bridges and widen 10 others.

Bridge work is almost complete, with only two bridges left in need of widening. Foundations on the longest bridges range up to 11 ft. (3.35 m) in diameter and extend more than 100 ft. (30.48 m) into the ground.

Utilities had to be relocated, including an oil pipeline and power lines spanning 800 ft. (244 m) across the freeway.

Workers moved 1.2 million cu. yds. (917,466 cu m) of dirt. They will have laid down 300,000 cu. yds. (230,000 cu m) of concrete once the project is completed.

Asphalt paving will total 50,000 tons (45,359 t). In addition workers are installing 20,000 ft. (6,096 m) of drainage pipe.

Generally, no special equipment has been needed for the interchange project, but Atkinson did have to bring in large cranes for lifting heavy materials. The cranes had the capability of lifting 275 tons (249.5 t).

Curt Waggoner, project manager, said one of the challenges of the project was satisfying U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service seismic requirements including retrofitting of the I-15 and I-215 for earthquake safety. The San Andreas Fault runs along the I-215 freeway and actually crosses under I-15 at one point moving up into the Cajon Pass.

Being well-equipped has helped Atkinson Construction stay on schedule. The company has a fleet of construction equipment to draw on from a central yard in Corona, Calif., and mechanics on site handle the day-to-day maintenance and repairs.

Most work is done from 6 a.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday through Friday. But some concrete work must be done at night when it is cooler.

Atkinson has several major subcontractors on the project, including All American Asphalt, Empire Steel, Pacific Restoration Group, URS, RMA, Shoring Engineers, Select Electric and Holliday Rock.

Separation of Cars and Trucks

Separating truck and passenger vehicle traffic is a primary objective of the project. Cars and trucks will no longer have to weave in and out of traffic to transition from one freeway to the other.

“Passenger cars will not have to compete with trucks,” Prunty said.

An additional northbound lane will be constructed on I-215 starting a .5 mi. (.80 km) south of Devore Road and ending at the merge with northbound I-15. The northbound I-215 Devore Road on-ramp closed on July 15 and was expected to remain closed for about 30 days.

Also workers will widen portions of the northbound I-215 to southbound I-15 connecter to two lanes to allow for passing. They will relocate the northbound I-15 to southbound I-215 connector just east of its current position.

One thing significant about the project is that no detours have been necessary through the pass. Also communication has been ongoing between the community and Caltrans.

“We meet monthly to address concerns,” Prunty said.

She said delays are typical, but have been limited to 25 minutes at peak commute times.

“We monitor traffic closely and lift closures if possible and needed to keep traffic flowing,” said Prunty.

Several roads in the area will have to be reconfigured including the I-15 and Kenwood Avenue interchange and reconstruction of Cajon Boulevard and Kenwood Avenue.

The interchange project will bring the interchange construction area up to a “state of good repair,” Caltrans reported in a release.

Source URL: http://www.constructionequipmentguide.com/Project-Aims-to-Ease-Congestion-on-Route-66/26421/

Region: Western Edition | StoryID: 26421 | Published On: 10/17/2015

Oldest KJV Bible Discovered


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The King James Bible, the most widely read book in the English language — from which phrases like “a man after his own heart” emerged — is as storied as it is elusive. Now, a historian claims to have found the oldest known draft of the Christian text, written in messy script, in an obscure archive at the University of Cambridge.

The manuscript was hidden among the papers of Samuel Ward, one of the men commissioned by King James I to translate a new version of the Christian text into English in the early 17th century.

Jeffrey Miller, an assistant professor of English at Montclair State University in New Jersey, chanced upon the 400-year-old notebook while doing research on Ward for an essay he’s writing. The Eureka moment came when Miller realized that the notebook contained text from the very book that Ward had been commissioned to help translate. Miller recalled thinking, “Oh my gosh, he’s talking about a book that he had been asked to help translate,” he said. “Then I realized rather he was creating the King James Bible in that moment.” [Proof of Jesus Christ? 7 Pieces of Evidence Debated]

Describing his discovery in the Times Literary Supplement, Miller said the notebook is not just the earliest draft ever found, but it is also the only surviving draft written in the hand of one of the original translators.

Fact-Checking the Bible

“Ward’s draft alone bears all the signs of having been a first draft, just as it alone can be definitively said to be in the hand of one of the King James translators themselves,” Miller wrote.

That hand was a messy one, it seems. “Ward’s handwriting is notoriously bad,” Miller told Live Science. “At least this is from earlier in his life,” he added. Ward began his translation when he was just 32 years old, making him the youngest of the 54 or so men commissioned to translate the King James Bible; his handwriting only got worse with age, Miller noted. Luckily, Miller was familiar with Ward’s handwriting from his intense study of the translator’s texts.

Translating the Bible

The King James Bible, first published in 1611, is one of the most influential and popular books in English literature. It spawned a long list of common phrases and figures of speech, such as “out of the mouths of babes,” “at their wit’s end” and “eat, drink and be merry.” Even so, few documents survive from its translation.

“I think it is a fascinating discovery, and wholly credible,” Jason BeDuhn, a professor of comparative study of religions at Northern Arizona University, told Live Science. “The more we can learn about the process by which the King James Bible was produced, the more realistic our assessment of its merits becomes.”

King James tasked teams of translators in London, Cambridge and Oxford to write an English version of the Bible that would better reflect the principles of the Church of England. Ward was part of one those teams in Cambridge. He later became master of Sidney Sussex, one of the colleges within the University of Cambridge, and his scholarly papers ended up in the school’s archives. In the 1980s, the notebook in question, catalogued as MS Ward B, had been labeled as a “verse-by-verse biblical commentary” with “Greek word studies, and some Hebrew notes.” But when Miller revisited the text, he discovered that it actually contained notes and translations of parts of the Apocrypha, a disputed section of the Bible that is excluded from many versions today. [Religious Mysteries: 8 Alleged Relics of Jesus]

“This discovery helps us recapture the human side of the translation process,” BeDuhn said. “I especially like Prof. Miller’s description of Ward trying out phrasing, crossing it out and trying something else. This is the real work of translation caught in the act.”

According to Miller, Ward’s notes show that he indeed grappled with the language of certain verses in the Apocrypha, for example, 1 Esdras 6:32. In the 16th-century Bishops’ Bible, the previous version to be authorized by the English Church, 1 Esdras 6:32 describes a declaration of King Darius, which states that anyone found disobeying his decrees “of his own goods should a tree be taken, and he thereon be hanged.”

“Proposing a revision to the front half of the passage, Ward at first began, ‘A tre,’ but then crossed it out,” Miller explained. “No, ‘out of h,’ he started writing on second thought, but then crossed that out, too. At last, he reverted back to the more straightforward construction with which he had abortively begun, which also more closely mirrors the Greek of the passage: ‘a tree should be taken out of his possession.’”

It seems Ward’s suggestions were disregarded. The King James translation would ultimately read “out of his own house should a tree be taken, and he thereon be hanged.”

Window into the past

The newly discovered notebook is not only the earliest known draft of any part of the King James Bible, but it’s also the only known surviving draft of any part of the Apocrypha. Even so, Miller sees its legacy on a broader scale: “It points the way to a fuller, more complex understanding than ever before of the process by which the [King James Bible], the most widely read work in English of all time, came to be,” he wrote.

To read more, go to:


Jeanna Bryner, managing editor of Live Science, contributed to this article.

Original article on Live Science.
Copyright 2015 LiveScience, a Purch company. All rights reserved. 

KJV Manuscript

KJV Manuscript

Source URL: http://news.discovery.com/history/religion/oldest-draft-of-king-james-bible-discovered-15101.htm#mkcpgn=rssnws1

Chicken Curry With Rice

Fresh ginger and pungent curry add big flavor to this one-pot meal

Recipe From EatingWell.com


WebMD Recipe from EatingWell.com

Total Time: 1 hour, 20 mins


· 1 cup basmati rice

· 3 teaspoons canola oil

· 6 skinless chicken thighs, trimmed

· 2 cups onions, finely chopped, about 3 medium onions

· 5 cloves garlic, minced

· 2 tablespoons fresh ginger, minced

· 2 tablespoons curry powder, preferably Madras

· 1 tablespoon ground coriander

· 1/2 teaspoon ground red pepper (cayenne), or to taste

· 2 cups reduced-sodium chicken broth

· 1 15-ounce can chickpeas, rinsed (1 1/2 cups)

· 1 14-ounce can diced tomatoes, drained

· 2 cups frozen peas, thawed

· 2 tablespoons fresh cilantro, chopped, optional

· lime wedges, for garnish

· salt and freshly ground pepper, to taste


Step 1: Preheat oven to 400°F. Soak rice in cold water for 20 minutes. Drain.

Step 2: Meanwhile, heat 1 teaspoon of the oil in a Dutch oven over medium-high heat. Add chicken and cook until browned on all sides, 6 to 8 minutes. Transfer the chicken to a plate.

Step 3: Reduce the heat to low, add the remaining 2 teaspoons oil and heat until hot. Add onions and cook, stirring, until light golden, 10 to 15 minutes. Stir in garlic, ginger, curry powder, coriander and ground red pepper; cook, stirring constantly, until fragrant, about 2 minutes.

Step 4: Increase the heat to medium-high; stir in broth, chickpeas, tomatoes and the soaked and drained rice; bring to a simmer. Nestle the browned chicken pieces in the rice. Cover and bake for 20 to 25 minutes, until the rice is tender and most of the liquid has been absorbed.

Step 5: Remove the chicken pieces and stir peas into the rice. Season with salt and pepper. Set the chicken back on the rice, and sprinkle with cilantro, if using. Serve with lime wedges.

Recipe Highlights

Prep Time: 40 mins

 Lower Cholesterol

 Low Sodium

 Lower Calorie

 Lower Saturated Fat

 High Fiber

 Poultry

Nutritional Information

Makes: 6 servings

Serving Size: 1 1/3 cups each

· 294 Cals

7g Fat

37mg Cholesterol

40g Carbs

· 18g Protein

· 419mg Sodium

Detailed Nutritional Information

· Calories 294

· Fat 7 g

· Saturated fat 1 g

· Mono Fat 3 g

· Cholesterol 37 mg

· Carbohydrates 40 g

· Dietary fiber 6 g

· Protein 18 g

· Sodium 419 mg

· Potassium 423 mg

* Nutritional Guidelines based on the USDA’s MyPlate Standards.

Source: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/chicken-curry-with-rice?ecd=wnl_dab_092815&ctr=wnl-dab-092815_nsl-ld-stry_cta&mb=Rtm8zzqoAADhLehufbBRvRXFE73IOX1cv05X0O41DTA%3d
© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

For more recipes go to EatingWell.com

Where the Heroes of the Maccabean Revolt Lie

Has the Tomb of the Maccabees been found?

Robin Ngo • 09/25/2015

An impressive stone structure with a burial chamber offers tantalizing clues to the location of the Tomb of the Maccabees, heroes of Hanukkah’s Maccabean revolt. Photo: Griffin Aerial Imaging, courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority.

Have archaeologists located the elusive Tomb of the Maccabees, described in ancient sources as a towering stone monument with pyramids? According to an Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) press release, archaeologists excavating near the modern Israeli city of Modi’in think there’s a possibility the famous tomb—or at the least the site venerated in the Byzantine period—has been found.

The Maccabees—Mattathias and his five sons—are famous for having led a successful rebellion in the 160s B.C.E. against King Antiochus IV Epiphanes after the Seleucid ruler desecrated the Temple and forbade circumcision and Sabbath observance. The Maccabean revolt, as it’s come to be known, is celebrated in the festival of Hanukkah.

Investigations at the site of Horbat Ha-Gardi, less than 2 miles northwest of modern Modi’in, began in the 19th century. (There are several candidates for the precise location of ancient Modi’in, the Jewish village that the Maccabees called home.) When French explorer Victor Guérin excavated Horbat Ha-Gardi in 1870, he found a large ashlar structure (21 x 82 ft) and a burial chamber, all covered with what he believed was a pyramid-like construction such as that described in the Book of Maccabees. He contended that he identified seven tombs, one for each member of the Maccabee family.

“The ruins of the tomb correspond perfectly to the Tomb of the Maccabees as described in the historical sources,” Guérin wrote.

French archaeologist Charles Clermont-Ganneau, however, conducted his own excavation of the structure described by Guérin in 1871. Clermont-Ganneau discovered in the burial chamber a colorful mosaic floor dating no earlier than the fifth century C.E. and bearing a cross.

“It is possible that this structure was built by the Christians so as to commemorate the burial place of the Holy Maccabees, since they were exalted saints in the eyes of Christianity,” Clermont-Ganneau wrote. “It is quite possible that in the future, unequivocal evidence will be found indicating the site is the place where the Maccabees were buried.”

Chicken Fried Steak


Can you really make a chicken-fried steak that isn’t loaded with saturated fat and salt? Absolutely. We skip the deep frying, but with rich country gravy as consolation, you won’t miss it. Our pan-fried, crispy cube steak has less than one-third of the fat and about 80 percent less sodium.


· 1/4 cup all-purpose flour

· 2 large egg whites, lightly beaten

· 1/4 cup cornmeal

· 1/4 cup whole-wheat flour

· 1/4 cup cornstarch, plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch, divided

· 1 teaspoon paprika

· 1 pound cube steak, cut into 4 portions

· 3/4 teaspoon kosher salt, divided

· 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper

· 2 tablespoons canola oil, divided

· 1 14-ounce can reduced-sodium beef broth

· 1 tablespoon water

· 1/4 cup half and half


Step 1: Preheat oven to 350°F. Coat a baking sheet with cooking spray.

Step 2: Place all-purpose flour on a large plate. Place egg whites in a shallow dish. Whisk cornmeal, whole-wheat flour, 1/4 cup cornstarch and paprika in another shallow dish. Season both sides of steak with 1/2 teaspoon each salt and pepper. Dredge the steak in the flour, shaking off excess; dip in the egg whites, then dredge in the cornmeal mixture.

Step 3: Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Reduce heat to medium and add 2 pieces of the steak; cook until browned on both sides, turning once, 3 to 5 minutes total. Transfer the steak to the prepared baking sheet and repeat with the remaining 1 tablespoon oil and 2 pieces of steak. Transfer the baking sheet to the oven and bake until cooked through, about 10 minutes.

Step 4: Meanwhile, add broth to the pan and boil over medium-high heat, stirring occasionally, until reduced to about 1 cup, 3 to 5 minutes. Whisk water and the remaining 1 tablespoon cornstarch until smooth. Remove the pan from the heat and stir in the cornstarch mixture. Return to the heat and cook, stirring, until thickened, 1 to 2 minutes. Stir in half-and-half; season with the remaining 1/4 teaspoon salt and pepper. Serve the steak topped with the gravy.

Recipe Highlights

Total Prep Time: 35 mins

·  Low Sodium

 Lower Calorie

 Lower Saturated Fat

 Lower Carb/Low GI

 Beef

Nutritional Information

Makes: 4 servings

· 322 Cals

· 13g Fat

· 76mg Cholesterol

· 18g Carbs

· 32g Protein

· 473mg Sodium

Detailed Nutritional Information

· Calories 322

· Fat 13 g

· Saturated fat 3 g

· Mono Fat 7 g

· Cholesterol 76 mg

· Carbohydrates 18 g

· Dietary fiber 1 g

· Protein 32 g

· Sodium 473 mg

· Potassium 354 mg

* Nutritional Guidelines based on the USDA’s MyPlate Standards.

© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
For more recipes go to EatingWell.com

Why the Book of Jonah Is Read on Yom Kippur

Jonah and the Whale

Why the Book of Jonah Is Read on Yom Kippur

Nahum Sarna • 09/20/2015

Stichting Fonds Goudse Glazen, Gouda
Jonah strides forth from the gaping mouth of a huge fish in this stained-glass window in St. John’s Church, Gouda, the Netherlands.

The Book of Jonah is read in the synagogue on the afternoon of Yom Kippur, the holiest day in the Jewish calendar, the sacred Day of Atonement. Why, of all books in the Bible, this book this most holy day?

The answer is clear. The major themes of the book are singularly appropriate to the occasion—sin and divine judgment, repentance and divine forgiveness.

What is remarkable is that the work is not at all about Israel. The sinners and penitents and the sympathetic characters are all pagans, while the anti-hero, the one who misunderstands the true nature of the one God, is none other than the Hebrew prophet. He is the one whom God must teach a lesson in compassion.

It is precisely these aspects of this sublime prophetic allegory, and in particular the subthemes of the book, that inform Yom Kippur. These motifs attracted the ancient Jewish sages and led them to select Jonah as one of the day’s two prophetic lectionaries.1 Its universalistic outlook; its definition of sin as predominantly moral sin;2 its teaching of human responsibility and accountability; its apprehension that true repentance is determined by deeds and established by transformation of character (Jonah 3:10), not by the recitation of formulas, however fervent; its emphasis on the infinite preciousness of all living things in the sight of God (Jonah 4:10–11); and, finally, its understanding of God as “compassionate and gracious, slow to anger, abounding in loving-kindness” (Jonah 4:2)—all these noble ideas of the Book of Jonah constitute the fundamentals of Judaism and the quintessence of Yom Kippur.

Buzz Aldrin developing ‘master plan’ to begin colonies on Mars by 2040 as he launches partnership with university


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  • Buzz Aldrin, 85, is partnering with Florida Institute of Technology
  • The Buzz Aldrin Space Institute will open in The Fall and focus on Mars
  • Astronaut, the second man to walk on the Moon, has devised plan to get to the red planet using ‘cycling pathways’ and base on Mars’s moon Phobos

By Associated Press and Christopher Brennan For Dailymail.com

Published: 15:22 EST, 27 August 2015 | Updated: 21:00 EST, 27 August 2015

The second man to walk on the Moon is teaming up with Florida Institute of Technology to develop ‘a master plan’ for colonizing Mars within 25 years.

Buzz Aldrin, 85, took part in a signing ceremony Thursday at the university, which is located in Melbourne, less than an hour’s drive from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center.

The Buzz Aldrin Space Institute is set to open this fall at FIT.

Aldrin, who followed Neil Armstrong onto the moon’s surface on July 20, 1969, will serve as a research professor of aeronautics as well as a senior faculty adviser for the institute.

He is pushing for a Mars settlement by approximately 2040 after crafting a system of flights to take humans there in incremental steps.

Buzz Aldrin is opening an institute at Florida Institute of Technology this fall with hopes of colonizing Mars by 2040. Above, he is pictured with FIT President Dr Anthony Catanese and vice president Dwayne McCay

The second man to walk on the Moon hopes that humans will reach Mars by the 70th anniversary of his landing. Above, Aldrin (right) with Apollo 11 crew mates Neil Armstrong (left) and Michael Collins (center)

More specifically, he’s shooting for 2039, the 70th anniversary of his own Apollo 11 moon landing.

His current proposal for colonizing Mars involves a concept called ‘Cycling Pathways to Occupy Mars’ in which missions would be perpetually cycling between Earth and the red planet.

Aldrin’s long term plan for colonizing Mars would take intermediary steps, testing out bases on the Moon and stationing astronauts on Mars’s larger moon Phobos.

Unmanned ‘exploration modules’ would be sent to Mars as astronauts on Phobos readied for a move downwards to the surface by assembling a base with robots.

The ‘cycler’ ships would later bring more astronauts, replacing the Phobos crew as the moon’s first crew goes down to Mars.

Aldrin has pushed for Mars exploration, and developed a plan with a series of steps to the Moon and Mars’s moon Phobos. Above, he signs copies of his book about such an expedition in California this July

The astronaut has also pushed for the US to work more closely with countries such as China to create an international base on the Moon. Above left, Aldrin on the Moon in a photo taken by Armstrong

‘No giant leaps this time. More like a hop, skip and a jump,’ Aldrin said on his website of the plan.

‘I am proud of my time at NASA with the Gemini 12 and Apollo 11 programs but I hope to be remembered more for my contributions to the future,’ he said in a release from FIT.

In addition to advocating for Mars exploration, Aldrin’s work since his retirement from NASA has included his Share Space Foundation initiative to boost science literacy in children.

He has also written in TIME that the US should cooperate more with other space exploration programs such as the European Space Agency and China.

Aldrin says that the stations on the Moon should be international ventures.

Read more:

· Buzz Aldrin Space Institute Formed at Florida Tech

· Buzz Aldrin: Why the U.S. Should Partner with China in Space

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3213428/Buzz-Aldrin-joins-university-forming-master-plan-Mars.html#ixzz3k8v9bmMJ

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Source URL: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3213428/Buzz-Aldrin-joins-university-forming-master-plan-Mars.html

Utah man dies from plague in 4th fatal case in US this year


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Aug 27, 3:43 PM (ET)


(AP) JoDee Baker, with the Utah Department of Health, speaks during a news briefing…
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SALT LAKE CITY (AP) — A Utah man in his 70s has died after contracting the plague, bringing to four the number of deaths from the disease reported in the United States this year, health officials said Thursday.

Officials are still trying to determine how the Utah person contracted the disease, but believe it might have been spread by a flea or contact with a dead animal, according to the state Department of Health.

“That’s the most common way to get it,” said JoDee Baker, an epidemiologist with the agency. “That’s probably what happened, but we’re still doing an investigation into that.”

Plague is a rare disease that is carried by rodents and spread by fleas. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says 11 other cases have been reported in six states since April 1. The other three people who died were ages 16, 52 and 79.

(AP) This Aug. 6, 2015, photo, shows prairie dogs, in southern Utah. Utah health…
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Anywhere between one and 17 cases of the illness have been reported each year in the U.S. since 2000, according to the CDC. Deaths are rare, with no more than two a year having been recorded over the past 15 years.

However, Mead said four deaths so far this year is not necessarily a cause for alarm.

“Yes, it’s twice as many, but when you’re dealing with small numbers, you have that kind of variation,” he said Thursday.

Patients in a few of the 11 other cases this year came down with the plague after visiting Yosemite National Park in California.

The last human case of plague in Utah was in 2009, but state Health Department spokeswoman Charla Haley said no deaths from plague have been recorded in the state in at least 35 years.

Haley said the latest patient got the disease in Utah, possibly after being in rural areas and near campgrounds. The person was hospitalized about five days after coming down with symptoms, and died in mid-August at the University of Utah’s Hospital.

State health officials declined to release the patient’s age, gender or hometown, saying the person’s family wanted to keep those details private. However, Mead confirmed the Utah case involved a man in his 70s.

Health officials checked with family members who may have been exposed to the person, but Baker said the incubation period has passed and no family members or anyone else reported symptoms.

Plague is naturally occurring in Utah rodents and is often seen in prairie dog populations, the Department of Health said. Wildlife and health officials confirmed in July that an outbreak of bubonic plague killed 60 to 80 prairie dogs in an eastern Utah colony.

Annette Roug, a veterinarian with Utah’s Division of Wildlife Resources, said Thursday state investigators found prairie dog burrows near the person’s property but no sign that animals were still living there.

Roug said if wildlife officials find prairie dog burrows in the area, they may treat them with insecticide to kill fleas that carry the disease. She declined to say where the affected area is in Utah.

Human cases of plague often occur in areas where wild rodent populations are near campsites and homes. Transmission between people is rare.

Baker said anyone going to rural areas or campgrounds can protect themselves by wearing insect repellent; thoroughly cooking any wild game and sanitizing knives and preparation tools; wearing gloves when handling or skinning wild animals; and ensuring pets are wearing flea collars.

Follow Michelle L. Price at https://twitter.com/michellelprice .


Genes Tell Intricate Tale of Jewish Diaspora


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by Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor | August 06, 2012 03:00pm ET

The Aben Danan Synagogue in Fez, Morocco, brings a North African flare to the Jewish faith.
Credit: Anibal Trejo, ShutterstockView full size image

A new genetic map paints a comprehensive picture of the 2,000 or so years in which different Jewish groups migrated across the globe, with some becoming genetically isolated units while others seemed to mix and mingle more.

The new findings allow researchers to trace the diaspora, or the historical migration, of the Jews, which began in the sixth century B.C. when the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Some Jews remained in Judah under Babylonian rule, while others fled to Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. Jewish migrations have continued into the day.

The study researchers found that the genomes of Jewish North African groups are distinct from one another, but that they show linkages to each other absent from their non-Jewish North African neighbors. The findings reveal a history of close-knit communities prone to intermarriage, said leader Harry Ostrer of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

“Virtually all the Jewish groups we’ve studied tend to be quite closely related to one another,” Ostrer said. “It would seem for most Jewish groups, there is a biological basis for their Jewishness which is based on their sharing of DNA segments.”

Tracing Jewish genetics

Ostrer and his colleagues have been studying the genetics of Jewish groups throughout Europe and the Middle East, both to reconstruct the history of the religion and to investigate diseases such as the genetic disorder Tay-Sachs that disproportionately affect this population. In 2010, the group reported on the genetics of seven European and Middle Eastern populations. The new study, published today (Aug. 6) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, expands the findings to a total of 15 groups, with the newest additions from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the island of Djerba. [Photos:Ancient Jewish Treasure]

The researchers worked with local communities to get volunteers to blood samples for genetic analysis. The current study analyzed the genes of 509 unrelated North African individuals, comparing them across groups. Similar work has been done linking ancient Israeli and Syrian people to Ethiopia.

The results revealed close relations between North African and European Jews, Ostrer said. The researchers also found two distinct groups of North African Jews, one comprised of Libyan and Tunisian Jews and the other of Moroccan and Algerian Jews. These groups were more likely to share DNA segments than other Jewish groups, indicating more shared genetic history.

“I like to think of Jewishness as a tapestry with these DNA segments representing the threads that weave the tapestry together,” Ostrer said. Non-Jews can convert to Judaism, but membership in the group is also passed down along a matrilineal line, meaning Jewishness straddles the line between religion, ethnicity and culture.

A history of migration

The findings tended to track with what is known of the history of the Jewish Diaspora, or spread of the Jewish people, through North Africa. For example, there was evidence of gene-sharing between North African Jews and non-Jews, but generally not recently, the researchers found.

“This tends to fit the historical observation that during Islamic times from roughly the eighth century to roughly the 20th century, there was limited intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews,” Ostrer said.

Among Moroccan and Algerian Jews, there was evidence of some mixing with the Sephardic Jews who trace their roots to the Iberian Peninsula. Again, the genetic results the known history of Sephardic Jews leaving Spain and Portugal, with some settling in Morocco and Algeria.

The findings help create a “comprehensive view of what the Jewish Diaspora was like,” Ostrer said. Major times of movement included the classic period of Greek and Roman dominance, when Jewish groups migrated out of the Middle East and into Europe and North Africa, converting locals and intermarrying along the way. A second major migration occurred after the Spanish Inquisition in the late 1400s and early 1500s, a time when Jews and Muslims were ordered to convert to Catholicism or leave Spain. [10
Myths of Medieval Torture

The most recent movement began in the late 1800s and continues today, with immigration to the United States, Israel, Canada, Australia and South Africa, Ostrer said.

The United States and Latin America tend to be a “melting pot” of genetics, Ostrer said — 50 percent to 60 percent of American Jews marry someone of a different religion or ethnicity — but the “Old World” genetics of European and North African Jews are helpful in understanding certain diseases.

In these populations, people married within their communities and even within their own for centuries, allowing studies on relatively few people to be extrapolated more widely throughout the population. In a similar example, researchers recently found a gene that protects against Alzheimer’s disease in Icelandic populations. Those results were reported July 21 in the journal Nature. The same sort of research is possible in Jewish populations, Ostrer said.

“It represents an extraordinary resource that is much harder to do, for instance, in the European-American population, because there has been such a melting pot occurring there,” he said.

Follow Stephanie Pappas on Twitter @sipappas or LiveScience @livescience. We’re also on Facebook & Google+.

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Author Bio

Stephanie Pappas

Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science. She covers the world of human and animal behavior, as well as paleontology and other science topics. Stephanie has a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of South Carolina and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. She has ducked under a glacier in Switzerland and poked hot lava with a stick in Hawaii. Stephanie hails from East Tennessee, the global center for salamander diversity. Follow Stephanie on Google+.

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