Genes Tell Intricate Tale of Jewish Diaspora

by Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor | August 06, 2012 03:00pm ET

The Aben Danan Synagogue in Fez, Morocco, brings a North African flare to the Jewish faith.
Credit: Anibal Trejo, Shutterstock

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A new genetic map paints a comprehensive picture of the 2,000 or so years in which different Jewish groups migrated across the globe, with some becoming genetically isolated units while others seemed to mix and mingle more.

The new findings allow researchers to trace the diaspora, or the historical migration, of the Jews, which began in the sixth century B.C. when the Babylonians conquered the Kingdom of Judah. Some Jews remained in Judah under Babylonian rule, while others fled to Egypt and other parts of the Middle East. Jewish migrations have continued into the present day.

The study researchers found that the genomes of Jewish North African groups are distinct from one another, but that they show linkages to each other absent from their non-Jewish North African neighbors. The findings reveal a history of close-knit communities prone to intermarriage, said study leader Harry Ostrer of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

"Virtually all the Jewish groups we’ve studied tend to be quite closely related to one another," Ostrer said. "It would seem for most Jewish groups, there is a biological basis for their Jewishness which is based on their sharing of DNA segments."

Tracing Jewish genetics

Ostrer and his colleagues have been studying the genetics of Jewish groups throughout Europe and the Middle East, both to reconstruct the history of the religion and to investigate diseases such as the genetic disorder Tay-Sachs that disproportionately affect this population. In 2010, the group reported on the genetics of seven European and Middle Eastern populations. The new study, published today (Aug. 6) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, expands the findings to a total of 15 groups, with the newest additions from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and the island of Djerba. [Photos:
Ancient Jewish Treasure
]

The researchers worked with local communities to get volunteers to offer blood samples for genetic analysis. The current study analyzed the genes of 509 unrelated North African individuals, comparing them across groups. Similar work has been done linking ancient Israeli and Syrian people to Ethiopia.

The results revealed close relations between North African and European Jews, Ostrer said. The researchers also found two distinct groups of North African Jews, one comprised of Libyan and Tunisian Jews and the other of Moroccan and Algerian Jews. These groups were more likely to share DNA segments than other Jewish groups, indicating more shared genetic history.

"I like to think of Jewishness as a tapestry with these DNA segments representing the threads that weave the tapestry together," Ostrer said. Non-Jews can convert to Judaism, but membership in the group is also passed down along a matrilineal line, meaning Jewishness straddles the line between religion, ethnicity and culture.

A history of migration

The findings tended to track with what is known of the history of the Jewish Diaspora, or spread of the Jewish people, through North Africa. For example, there was evidence of gene-sharing between North African Jews and non-Jews, but generally not recently, the researchers found.

"This tends to fit the historical observation that during Islamic times from roughly the eighth century to roughly the 20th century, there was limited intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews," Ostrer said.

Among Moroccan and Algerian Jews, there was evidence of some mixing with the Sephardic Jews who trace their roots to the Iberian Peninsula. Again, the genetic results back up the known history of Sephardic Jews leaving Spain and Portugal, with some settling in Morocco and Algeria.

The findings help create a "comprehensive view of what the Jewish Diaspora was like," Ostrer said. Major times of movement included the classic period of Greek and Roman dominance, when Jewish groups migrated out of the Middle East and into Europe and North Africa, converting locals and intermarrying along the way. A second major migration occurred after the Spanish Inquisition in the late 1400s and early 1500s, a time when Jews and Muslims were ordered to convert to Catholicism or leave Spain. [10
Myths of Medieval Torture
]

The most recent movement began in the late 1800s and continues today, with immigration to the United States, Israel, Canada, Australia and South Africa, Ostrer said.

The United States and Latin America tend to be a "melting pot" of genetics, Ostrer said — 50 percent to 60 percent of American Jews marry someone of a different religion or ethnicity — but the "Old World" genetics of European and North African Jews are helpful in understanding certain diseases.

In these populations, people married within their communities and even within their own families for centuries, allowing studies on relatively few people to be extrapolated more widely throughout the population. In a similar example, researchers recently found a gene that protects against Alzheimer’s disease in Icelandic populations. Those results were reported July 21 in the journal Nature. The same sort of research is possible in Jewish populations, Ostrer said.

"It represents an extraordinary resource that is much harder to do, for instance, in the European-American population, because there has been such a melting pot occurring there," he said.

Follow Stephanie Pappas on Twitter @sipappas or LiveScience @livescience. We’re also on Facebook & Google+.

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http://www.livescience.com/22137-genetics-jewish-diaspora.html
Author Bio

Stephanie Pappas

Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science. She covers the world of human and animal behavior, as well as paleontology and other science topics. Stephanie has a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of South Carolina and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. She has ducked under a glacier in Switzerland and poked hot lava with a stick in Hawaii. Stephanie hails from East Tennessee, the global center for salamander diversity. Follow Stephanie on Google+.

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Origin of the Romani People Pinned Down

by Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor | December 06, 2012 12:00pm ET

Romani with their wagon, photographed in the Rheinland of Germany in 1935.
Credit: Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-J0525-0500-003 / CC-BY-SA, distributed under a Creative Commons license (German Federal Archives)

Europe’s largest minority group, the Romani, migrated from northwest India 1,500 years ago, new genetic study finds.

The Romani, also known as the Roma, were originally dubbed "gypsies" in the 16th century, because this widely dispersed group of people were first thought to have come from Egypt. Today, many consider "gypsy" to be a derogatory term.

Since the advent of better and better genetic technology, researchers have analyzed the genetic history of much of Europe, finding, for example, the history of the Jewish Diaspora written in DNA. But though there are 11 million Romani in Europe, their history has been neglected, said study researcher David Comas of the Institut de Biologia Evolutiva at Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Spain

Linguistic history as well as a few limited genetic studies had already suggested the Romani originally hailed from India. To confirm this idea and uncover more details on the migration, Comas and his colleagues used a technique that compares DNA segments from across the whole genome with that of other populations. They used DNA samples from 13 groups of Romani spread across Europe.

"In our study, we do not focus on specific regions of the genome, but on the genome as a whole, which provides us the complete genetic information of the populations under study," he told LiveScience.

The results revealed the modern Romani’s ancestors migrated out of northwest India all at one time 1,500 years ago, Comas and his colleagues report today (Dec. 6) in the journal Current Biology. Once they arrived in Europe, they spread across the continent from the Balkan region about 900 years ago, Comas said.

Over hundreds of years of history, intermarriage between Romani people and local populations has waxed and waned, Comas said. They have often been discriminated against; during the Holocaust, somewhere between 200,000 and 1.5 million Romani were killed by Hitler’s Nazis. After World War II, Romani in communist nations were often targeted for "assimilation," which sometimes meant forced sterilization to lower their birth rate. [7
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]

Comas said he hoped to later widen the analysis to include more Romani groups as well as more Indian populations from the region where the Romani originated.

Follow Stephanie Pappas on Twitter @sipappas or LiveScience @livescience. We’re also on Facebook & Google+.

Editor’s Recommendations

http://www.livescience.com/25294-origin-romani-people.html
Author Bio

Stephanie Pappas

Stephanie Pappas is a contributing writer for Live Science. She covers the world of human and animal behavior, as well as paleontology and other science topics. Stephanie has a Bachelor of Arts in psychology from the University of South Carolina and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. She has ducked under a glacier in Switzerland and poked hot lava with a stick in Hawaii. Stephanie hails from East Tennessee, the global center for salamander diversity. Follow Stephanie on Google+.

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Muslims harass congressmen visiting Temple Mount

“When there is a lack of resolve in protecting religious freedoms, it emboldens those who have no compunction about suppressing it,” Rep. Franks says.

(L to R): Mark Murray, Rep. Keith Rothfus (R-PA), EJ Kimball, Elizabeth Jenkins, Rep. Evan Jenkins (R-WV), Rep. Trent Franks (R-AZ), Bob Naegele. (photo credit: ISRAEL ALLIES FOUNDATION)

A group of Muslim men harassed and stalked a delegation of US congressmen visiting the Temple Mount Tuesday.

“There was an effort to completely suppress not only any expression of religious conviction, but any articulation of historical reality,” Rep. Trent Franks (R-AZ), co-chairman of the Israel Allies Foundation’s congressional caucus recounted, saying the harassment “shows the fundamental dynamics of the greater contention throughout the Middle East.”

Franks, Rep. Keith Rothfus (R-PA), Rep. Evan Jenkins (R-WV) and his wife Elizabeth Jenkins, are members of a delegation organized by the Israel Allies Foundation, an umbrella organization supporting 33 parliamentary caucuses around the world that mobilize political support for Israel based on Judeo-Christian values.

As part of the delegation’s trip to the Middle East, the group took a tour of the Temple Mount that was constantly interrupted by shouting, first by Arab men in the plaza and then by Waqf staff.

“We walked up there,” Rothfus recounted, “and were almost immediately approached by several men who started shouting. We were tracked the entire time we were there and found these individuals surprisingly intolerant and belligerent.”

The delegation said the harassment began when they ascended the Mount, and Mrs. Jenkins, who was wearing a calf-length skirt and a long-sleeved shirt was yelled at that she needed to cover up more, and police were needed to break up the melee and clear the way for the group to continue the visit.

The delegation’s guide then began to speak about the history of the site, which is holy to Jews, Christians and Muslims, but is controlled by Jordan and the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf. When the guide showed the group a map of Israel, a man who was cleaning nearby notified another man in the area, who asked the guide questions about the maps and diagrams, demanding to be shown if any of them feature the Temple, and told him he cannot use the term “Temple Mount,” only “Dome of the Rock,” as can be seen in a video the group provided to The Jerusalem Post.

Men wearing shirts with Waqf insignia then repeatedly interrupted the guide and tried to grab his diagrams and maps. The guide responded that he is doing nothing illegal and will only stop if told to do so by police.

“Our guide was very respectful but very appropriately strong in his convictions. He was not confrontational, but handled it very appropriately,” Jenkins said.

Soon after, 15-20 men began to harass the group, interrupting the tour guide, shouting and pointing, and once again police had to break up the commotion.

The guide “let us know that men running around with walkie-talkies are not the final authority,” Jenkins recounted. “Despite the screaming and shouting and pointing of men with walkie-talkies, the police were able to exercise their authority and let us proceed comfortably.”

For the rest of their visit to the Temple Mount, the group was followed by Muslim men.

EJ Kimball, Director of US Operations for the Israel Allies Foundation said the congressional delegation “wasn’t doing anything controversial, no one was even wearing a yarmulke. [The Muslims on the Mount] did a good job of making everyone feel very uncomfortable just for being up there as a non-Muslim.”

On their way out, the delegation saw a group of Jewish visitors confronted by a Muslim group crowding around them and shouting Allahu Akbar. The Northern Branch of the Islamic Movement in Israel pays Murbitat, meaning protectors of holy places, who harass non-Muslim visitors, thousands of shekels every month. The groups of Murbitat are often led by women dressed head-to-toe in black, with their faces covered.

Jenkins said he had mixed emotions after the visit to the Temple Mount.

“It was a place of great religious meaning to me as a Christian, a destination…that me and my wife were looking forward to, and then to have the confrontation from the Muslims who yelled and shouted at us and my wife individually…To literally step on the Temple Mount and be confronted was certainly shocking,” Jenkins recounted.

The congressman from West Virginia called the experience “unsettling,” saying that “in America we watch conflict around the world on the evening news. It’s unfortunate to walk on to the Temple Mount and see conflict not half a world away, but feet away.”

Jenkins said that he believes in tolerance and acceptance of all religions, but that is not what he saw at a site that is so religiously significant.

As a Christian raised on the stories of the Bible and New Testament, Franks said visiting the mount was “exhilarating and meaningful beyond words,” but that the experience was marred by the harassment, “a reminder of challenges both in micro and macro that the people of Israel face every day.”

“I wish it was something the world understood more and was more aware of,” Franks said. “Even when visiting a historical site there is harassment, because of people who want to rewrite history.”

Franks added that, while he does not question Israeli policies because they have experience in dealing with the problems on the Temple Mount, he found that “in general, when there is a lack of resolve in protecting religious freedoms, it emboldens those who have no compunction about suppressing it.”

When asked if he felt his freedom of expression was violated, Rothfus said “certainly.”

“We weren’t doing anything religious. We were learning the history of the Temple Mount,” he stated.

Rothfus plans to share his experience, and said of the harassers: “Maybe the folks who were behaving like this might want to do some self-examination. They really are not presenting themselves as very good ambassadors for their cause.”

The purpose of the delegation’s trip to the Middle East is “to gain a better perspective of the opposition to the Iranian nuclear deal and the increased cooperation between Israel and its Arab neighbors against shared threats from jihadist groups,” Kimball said. The group traveled to Egypt before Israel, where the congressmen met with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu after its trip to the Temple Mount.

Source URL: http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Exclusive-Muslims-harass-Congressmen-visiting-Temple-Mount-411782

Exercises for Stronger Hips and Knees

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NOTE: If you are one of the many who suffer from knee and hip problems, you may enjoy reading this article. But do not just read it, include it as a part of your daily exercise routine. You do have one, don’t you? (lcr)

Build hip and knee stability with a few basic exercises

By Elizabeth Quinn

Sports Medicine Expert

Updated July 04, 2015

Do you do specific exercises for your hips and knees? Do you work your hip through the entire range of motion and engage the abductors and adductor muscles? If not, maybe you should.

The abductors and adductors are critical for providing integrity of the hip joint and create a strong, balanced link between the lower body and the torso. They also need to be exercised through an entire range of motion. If you work these muscles only in one direction (forward and back) by walking, running or using common cardio machines then you are not building structural integrity of the hip, or the entire lower body.

These muscles, along with the quads and hamstrings, play an important role in allowing the patella (kneecap) to track properly as the knee joint bends.

If the abductor and adductor muscles are not strong, flexible, and balanced, knee pain such as patellofemoral syndrome, and injury is more likely.

Strong Muscles Support Joints

Strengthening and balancing the muscles that surround the knee can take the pressure off the joint and decrease the amount of total weight absorbed by the ligaments, meniscus and cartilage in the knee. Because the knee is a hinge joint and only moves in one direction, it’s important to maintain both strength and stability.

The hip joint, on the other hand, is a ball and socket joint that works best when it has mobility as well as strength. The hip is a much more complicated joint, and needs to be exercised in a variety of directions, including rotation, in order to increase overall stability. If the muscles that support the hip joint (quadriceps, hip flexors, glutes, hamstrings, and even the core muscles) are strong and allow appropriate mobility, the amount of pressure and wear and tear on the hip joint, as well as the knee joint, decreases.

Proper Alignment Reduces Pain

The soft tissues of the body (muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc.) help maintain proper alignment of the bones during movement. If bones aren’t properly aligned when they move through a range of motion, there can be a great deal of friction, a lack of stability, decreased mobility and compromised function. This can set an athlete up for a variety of injuries.

The best way to maintain biomechanical integrity during movement is with the proper balance of strength and flexibility around the joint. Muscles work in pairs (extensors and flexors) and maintaining the proper balance of strength in these muscle pairs can go a long way to prevent joint pain and injury.

Begin with a Functional Warm Up

Consider using the core workout as a warm up before strength training. This routine activates the core stabilizers as it warms up the larger muscles to prepare for more powerful strength training exercises. Also see:

Exercises for Strong Hips and Knees

This list offers some great exercises that athletes from all sports can incorporate into their training routines to help keep the hips and knees properly aligned, strong, flexible and able to withstand the rigors of sports.

Beginner Exercises

1. Clam Exercise
A basic glute medius strengthening move.

2. Bridge Exercise
A hamstring and glute strengthener.

3. Plank Exercise
This basic strengthening exercise can improve overall core biomechanics.

Intermediate Exercises

1. Side Plank
This basic hip abductor strengthening exercise can improve alignment.

2. Lateral Mini Band Walking
This simple exercise can improve the strength of the glute medius, which helps pelvis and knee stability.

3. Single Leg Bridge
A bit more advanced way to build stability.

4. Lunge with a Twist
Adding a twist to the lunge improves core stability.

5. Weighted Step Ups
This simple and effective exercise improves strength and power without excessive stress on the knees or hips.

6. Squat
The basic full squat is the overall best lower body strengthening exercise. Just be sure to do it correctly.

Advanced Exercises

1. Walking Lunge
Walking lunges, with or without weights, can improve strength and balance.

2. Lateral Plyometric Jumps
Side-to-side moves to improve hip mobility and strength.

3. Weighted Adductor | Weighted Abductor Exercises
Deceptively difficult exercises for athletes.

4. One-Leg Squat and Reach
This exercise builds strength and stability in both the lower body and core.

5. Overhead Lunge
Increase the difficulty of the lunge and add core stability by holding weight overhead.

6. Plyometrics
Plyometrics build explosive strength and help reduce the risk of knee ligament injuries when performed correctly.

Real Life Exercises for Hips and Knees

When it comes to preventing injury, using compound or “functional” exercises that use a variety of muscles and simulate real life movements are generally considered the ideal way for athletes to train. Such movements include exercises like squats, lunges and lateral movements. Exercises that isolate a specific muscle (such as a leg extension or biceps curl) do have a place in athletic training, but are often reserved to help isolate and rehab a muscle after an injury or to recover after a surgery. (Read More: Compound vs. Isolation Exercises)

Basic Knee and Hip Exercises

If you are starting from zero or getting over an injury, you can begin to build strength and stability in the hip and knee joints by going back to basics and using these simple exercise routines.

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Source URL: http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/hipandgroininjuries/a/Best-Exercises-For-Hips-And-Knees.htm?utm_source=cn_nl&utm_medium=email&utm_term=list_seniorhealth&utm_campaign=boomers_health&utm_content=20150731

‘Impossible’ rocket drive works and could get to Moon in four hours

The British designed EM Drive actually works and would dramatically speed up space travel, scientists have confirmed

The Em Drive could allow humans to travel to the Moon in just four hours Photo: NASA

By Sarah Knapton, Science Editor

6:09PM BST 28 Jul 2015

Interplanetary travel could be a step closer after scientists confirmed that an electromagnetic propulsion drive, which is fast enough to get to the Moon in four hours, actually works.

The EM Drive was developed by the British inventor Roger Shawyer nearly 15 years ago but was ridiculed at the time as being scientifically impossible.

It produces thrust by using solar power to generate multiple microwaves that move back and forth in an enclosed chamber. This means that until something fails or wears down, theoretically the engine could keep running forever without the need for rocket fuel.

The drive, which has been likened to Star Trek’s Impulse Drive, has left scientists scratching their heads because it defies one of the fundamental concepts of physics – the conservation of momentum – which states that if something is propelled forward, something must be pushed in the opposite direction. So the forces inside the chamber should cancel each other out.

The EM Drive

However in recent years Nasa has confirmed that they believe it works and this week Martin Tajmar, a professor and chair for Space Systems at Dresden University of Technology in Germany also showed that it produces thrust.

The drive is capable of producing thrust several thousand times greater than a standard photon rocket and could get to Mars within 70 days or Pluto within 18 months. A trip to Alpha Centauri, which would take tens of thousands of years to reach right now, could be reached in just 100 years.

"Our test campaign cannot confirm or refute the claims of the EM Drive but intends to independently assess possible side-effects in the measurements methods used so far," said Prof Tajmar in anew

"Nevertheless, we do observe thrust close to the actual predictions after eliminating many possible error sources that should warrant further investigation into the phenomena."

The EM drive has been likened to the Impulse Drive in Star Trek’s vessel of choice, the Starship Enterprise

"Our measurements reveal thrusts as expected from previous claims after carefully studying thermal and electromagnetic interferences.

"If true, this could certainly revolutionize space travel."

Shawyer also claims that he is just a few months away from publishing new results confirming that his drive works in a peer reviewed journal.

However scientists still have no idea how it actually works. NASA suggested that it could have something to do with the technology manipulating subatomic particles which constantly pop in and out of existence in empty space.

Prof Tajmer presented his findings to the 2015 American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics’ Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition this week.

telegraph.co.uk

Source URL: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/11769030/Impossible-rocket-drive-works-and-could-get-to-Moon-in-four-hours.html

Chickens first commercialized in Israel 2,300 years ago, researchers say

By DANIEL K. EISENBUD
07/21/2015 14:58

Poultry farms did not reach Europe until 200 years later.

Cooking pot with chicken wings bones. (photo credit:FACULTY OF ARCHEOLOGY, HAIFA UNIVERSITY)

The world’s first period of industrial growth of chickens and eggs for mass consumption began in Israel’s Judean lowlands of Lakhish 2,300 years ago, 200 years before the practice reached Europe, researchers at the University of Haifa announced on Tuesday.

According to a study published by researchers from the university’s Zinman Institute of Archeology in the PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) journal, evidence suggests that chickens were first industrialized in Southern Israel during the Hellenistic period.

“Chicken remains found from the Hellenistic period (4th century BC) in the Judean lowlands shed light on the beginnings of this economic revolution, and show the earliest evidence of the western world’s large-scale industrial poultry,” the university said in a statement.

“The change was sharp and fast, and within a few decades, chickens were based throughout the Middle East. It seems residents cultivated a new breed of rooster particularly suitable for commercial growth.”

The researchers said the findings shed new light on the beginnings of the economic exploitation of roosters, and then chickens, tracking its rise from the Mediterranean to Europe.

“Hundreds of years of gradual acclimatization of roosters in the southern Mediterranean Levant, along with the gradual adoption of this animal in the Middle Eastern economy, probably created a strain of rooster suitable for economic exploitation,” the researchers concluded.

“Globalization that characterized the Hellenistic regime in our region, compounded with developments in international science and commerce, created the right conditions for change in the status of the rooster to generate income, and serve as food.”

Chickens were first raised in the Far East and South East Asia 8,000 years ago, reaching the Middle East in small pockets 5,000 years later. At that time, the researchers said the animals were considered exotic, and were primarily used for worship and cockfights.

It was previously unknown when and where chickens became mass produced for consumption.

However, Haifa University’s Prof. Ayelet Gilboa and Prof. Guy Bar-Oz, said 2,300-year-old chicken bones from the Hellenistic period unearthed near underground ancient breeding facilities in a Judean settlement in Lakhish indicated that chicken exports played a key role in the community’s economic development.

“During this time the chicken was very rare in Europe,” Gilboa said.

“Plenty of bones, along with signs of fire and slaughter, indicate that the chickens were also eaten on site. The large quantity of bones reinforces the assumption that some of the major industries used the chickens for export.”

Moreover, Bar-Oz said wall paintings and figurines of roosters discovered during excavations in the area also constitute compelling evidence of the importance of chickens to the ancient city’s economy.

Additionally, analysis of the bones found at the site determined that female chickens were raised to produce mass quantities of eggs.

“In light of these discoveries, the researchers conducted a comprehensive survey of no less than 230 sites in the southern Levant, from the 2nd millennium BC,” the university said in a statement.

“The findings showed that during the Hellenistic period there was a dramatic leap, both in the percentage of chickens, and the percentage of chicken sites.”

The researchers added that comparable chicken facilities did not reach Europe for another two centuries

Source URL: http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Culture/Chickens-first-commercialized-in-Israel-2300-years-ago-researchers-say-409671

From the WebMD Daily Bite: Raspberry Bars

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From the Daily Bite | Raspberry Bars

Tart raspberry filling is swirled into a low-fat cream filling in these beautiful bars. They’re a festive treat for a summer picnic or party.

Ingredients

· 3/4 cup white whole-wheat flour

· 1/2 cup chopped pecans

· 2 tablespoons granulated sugar

· 1/2 teaspoon salt

· 3 tablespoons cold butter, cut into small pieces

· 2 tablespoons ice water

· 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

· 2 teaspoons unflavored gelatin

· 2 tablespoons water

· 3 cups fresh raspberries, divided

· 1/2 cup granulated sugar

· 4 tablespoons nonfat cream cheese, softened

· 2 tablespoons low-fat milk

· 1 tablespoon confectioners’ sugar

Instructions

· Step 1 * To prepare crust: Preheat oven to 400°F. Coat an 8-inch-square baking pan with cooking spray.

· Step 2 * Place flour, pecans, 2 tablespoons sugar and salt in a food processor; process until the nuts are finely ground. Add butter one piece at a time, pulsing once or twice after each addition, until incorporated. Add ice water and vanilla and pulse just until the dough starts to come together. Transfer to the prepared pan. Press evenly and firmly into the pan to form a bottom crust.

· Step 3 * Bake the crust until it looks set, but not browned, about 15 minutes. Let cool on a wire rack.

· Step 4 * To prepare raspberry filling: Sprinkle gelatin over 2 tablespoons water in a small bowl; let stand, stirring once or twice, while you prepare the rest of the filling.

· Step 5 * Reserve 16 raspberries. Puree the remaining raspberries in a food processor until smooth. Transfer to a medium saucepan and stir in 1/2 cup sugar. Cook over medium heat until bubbling. Stir in the gelatin mixture and cook, stirring, until the gelatin is melted, about 1 minute.

· Step 6 * Fill a large bowl with ice water. Pour the raspberry mixture into a medium bowl and set it in the bowl of ice water. Refrigerate, stirring occasionally with a rubber spatula, until the mixture thickens to the consistency of loose jam and is beginning to set around the edges, about 30 minutes.

· Step 7 * Meanwhile, beat cream cheese, milk and confectioners’ sugar in a medium bowl with an electric mixer until smooth.

· Step 8 * Spread the thickened raspberry filling evenly over the crust. Dollop the cream cheese mixture over the filling. Draw the tip of a sharp knife or skewer through the two fillings to create a swirled effect. Nestle the reserved berries into the filling, evenly spacing them so each bar will be topped with a berry when cut. Refrigerate until the bars are completely set, about 3 hours. Cut into 16 bars, one raspberry per bar.

Recipe Highlights

Prep Time: 25

·  Lower Cholesterol 

 Low Sodium 

 Lower Calorie 

 Lower Saturated Fat 

 Lower Carb/Low GI 

 Dairy

Nutritional Information:

Makes: 16 bars

· 100 Cals | 5g Fat | 6mg Cholesterol | 14g Carbs | 2g Protein | 100mg Sodium

© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
For more recipes go to EatingWell.com

Source URL: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/raspberry-cream-bars?ecd=wnl_dab_070415&ctr=wnl-dab-070415_ld-stry&mb=Rtm8zzqoAADhLehufbBRvRXFE73IOX1cv05X0O41DTA%3d

Zesty Dill Potato Salad

Zesty Dill Potato Salad

WebMD Recipe from EatingWell.com

Total Time: 35 mins

Red potatoes are a perfect choice in this salad because they keep their shape when sliced and they add color. Leftover meat or chicken may be added to this salad for a main dish.

Ingredients

· 1 pound medium red potatoes, scrubbed

· 2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar

· 1 tablespoon white-wine vinegar

· 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil

· ¼ cup red bell pepper, diced*

· ¼ cup green bell pepper, diced*

· ¼ cup scallions, chopped

· 1 tablespoon fresh dill, chopped

· freshly ground white or black pepper, to taste

· salt, to taste

* Red and green pepper may be omitted, or remain, in addition to ⅛ to ¼ cup chopped jalapeno chiles from a jar or canned; just so long as they are cooked and skin removed.

Instructions
Step 1 · Boil potatoes in salted water in a saucepan until tender, about 20 minutes. Drain and let stand until cool enough to handle. Cut potatoes in half lengthwise, then cut into approximately 1/2-inch slices. Place in a serving bowl.

Step 2 · Sprinkle the potatoes with balsamic vinegar, white-wine vinegar and oil, tossing gently to coat. Add red and green bell peppers, scallions, dill and pepper and toss gently to mix. Taste and adjust seasonings. Serve at room temperature.

© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
For more recipes go to EatingWell.com
Source URL http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/zesty-dill-potato-salad?ecd=wnl_dab_062115&ctr=wnl-dab-062115_ld-stry&mb=Rtm8zzqoAADhLehufbBRvRXFE73IOX1cv05X0O41DTA%3d
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