Exercises for Stronger Hips and Knees


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NOTE: If you are one of the many who suffer from knee and hip problems, you may enjoy reading this article. But do not just read it, include it as a part of your daily exercise routine. You do have one, don’t you? (lcr)

Build hip and knee stability with a few basic exercises

By Elizabeth Quinn

Sports Medicine Expert

Updated July 04, 2015

Do you do specific exercises for your hips and knees? Do you work your hip through the entire range of motion and engage the abductors and adductor muscles? If not, maybe you should.

The abductors and adductors are critical for providing integrity of the hip joint and create a strong, balanced link between the lower body and the torso. They also need to be exercised through an entire range of motion. If you work these muscles only in one direction (forward and back) by walking, running or using common cardio machines then you are not building structural integrity of the hip, or the entire lower body.

These muscles, along with the quads and hamstrings, play an important role in allowing the patella (kneecap) to track properly as the knee joint bends.

If the abductor and adductor muscles are not strong, flexible, and balanced, knee pain such as patellofemoral syndrome, and injury is more likely.

Strong Muscles Support Joints

Strengthening and balancing the muscles that surround the knee can take the pressure off the joint and decrease the amount of total weight absorbed by the ligaments, meniscus and cartilage in the knee. Because the knee is a hinge joint and only moves in one direction, it’s important to maintain both strength and stability.

The hip joint, on the other hand, is a ball and socket joint that works best when it has mobility as well as strength. The hip is a much more complicated joint, and needs to be exercised in a variety of directions, including rotation, in order to increase overall stability. If the muscles that support the hip joint (quadriceps, hip flexors, glutes, hamstrings, and even the core muscles) are strong and allow appropriate mobility, the amount of pressure and wear and tear on the hip joint, as well as the knee joint, decreases.

Proper Alignment Reduces Pain

The soft tissues of the body (muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc.) help maintain proper alignment of the bones during movement. If bones aren’t properly aligned when they move through a range of motion, there can be a great deal of friction, a lack of stability, decreased mobility and compromised function. This can set an athlete up for a variety of injuries.

The best way to maintain biomechanical integrity during movement is with the proper balance of strength and flexibility around the joint. Muscles work in pairs (extensors and flexors) and maintaining the proper balance of strength in these muscle pairs can go a long way to prevent joint pain and injury.

Begin with a Functional Warm Up

Consider using the core workout as a warm up before strength training. This routine activates the core stabilizers as it warms up the larger muscles to prepare for more powerful strength training exercises. Also see:

Exercises for Strong Hips and Knees

This list offers some great exercises that athletes from all sports can incorporate into their training routines to help keep the hips and knees properly aligned, strong, flexible and able to withstand the rigors of sports.

Beginner Exercises

1. Clam Exercise
A basic glute medius strengthening move.

2. Bridge Exercise
A hamstring and glute strengthener.

3. Plank Exercise
This basic strengthening exercise can improve overall core biomechanics.

Intermediate Exercises

1. Side Plank
This basic hip abductor strengthening exercise can improve alignment.

2. Lateral Mini Band Walking
This simple exercise can improve the strength of the glute medius, which helps pelvis and knee stability.

3. Single Leg Bridge
A bit more advanced way to build stability.

4. Lunge with a Twist
Adding a twist to the lunge improves core stability.

5. Weighted Step Ups
This simple and effective exercise improves strength and power without excessive stress on the knees or hips.

6. Squat
The basic full squat is the overall best lower body strengthening exercise. Just be sure to do it correctly.

Advanced Exercises

1. Walking Lunge
Walking lunges, with or without weights, can improve strength and balance.

2. Lateral Plyometric Jumps
Side-to-side moves to improve hip mobility and strength.

3. Weighted Adductor | Weighted Abductor Exercises
Deceptively difficult exercises for athletes.

4. One-Leg Squat and Reach
This exercise builds strength and stability in both the lower body and core.

5. Overhead Lunge
Increase the difficulty of the lunge and add core stability by holding weight overhead.

6. Plyometrics
Plyometrics build explosive strength and help reduce the risk of knee ligament injuries when performed correctly.

Real Life Exercises for Hips and Knees

When it comes to preventing injury, using compound or “functional” exercises that use a variety of muscles and simulate real life movements are generally considered the ideal way for athletes to train. Such movements include exercises like squats, lunges and lateral movements. Exercises that isolate a specific muscle (such as a leg extension or biceps curl) do have a place in athletic training, but are often reserved to help isolate and rehab a muscle after an injury or to recover after a surgery. (Read More: Compound vs. Isolation Exercises)

Basic Knee and Hip Exercises

If you are starting from zero or getting over an injury, you can begin to build strength and stability in the hip and knee joints by going back to basics and using these simple exercise routines.

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Source URL: http://sportsmedicine.about.com/od/hipandgroininjuries/a/Best-Exercises-For-Hips-And-Knees.htm?utm_source=cn_nl&utm_medium=email&utm_term=list_seniorhealth&utm_campaign=boomers_health&utm_content=20150731

‘Impossible’ rocket drive works and could get to Moon in four hours

The British designed EM Drive actually works and would dramatically speed up space travel, scientists have confirmed

The Em Drive could allow humans to travel to the Moon in just four hours Photo: NASA

By Sarah Knapton, Science Editor

6:09PM BST 28 Jul 2015

Interplanetary travel could be a step closer after scientists confirmed that an electromagnetic propulsion drive, which is fast enough to get to the Moon in four hours, actually works.

The EM Drive was developed by the British inventor Roger Shawyer nearly 15 years ago but was ridiculed at the time as being scientifically impossible.

It produces thrust by using solar power to generate multiple microwaves that move back and forth in an enclosed chamber. This means that until something fails or wears down, theoretically the engine could keep running forever without the need for rocket fuel.

The drive, which has been likened to Star Trek’s Impulse Drive, has left scientists scratching their heads because it defies one of the fundamental concepts of physics – the conservation of momentum – which states that if something is propelled forward, something must be pushed in the opposite direction. So the forces inside the chamber should cancel each other out.

The EM Drive

However in recent years Nasa has confirmed that they believe it works and this week Martin Tajmar, a professor and chair for Space Systems at Dresden University of Technology in Germany also showed that it produces thrust.

The drive is capable of producing thrust several thousand times greater than a standard photon rocket and could get to Mars within 70 days or Pluto within 18 months. A trip to Alpha Centauri, which would take tens of thousands of years to reach right now, could be reached in just 100 years.

"Our test campaign cannot confirm or refute the claims of the EM Drive but intends to independently assess possible side-effects in the measurements methods used so far," said Prof Tajmar in anew

"Nevertheless, we do observe thrust close to the actual predictions after eliminating many possible error sources that should warrant further investigation into the phenomena."

The EM drive has been likened to the Impulse Drive in Star Trek’s vessel of choice, the Starship Enterprise

"Our measurements reveal thrusts as expected from previous claims after carefully studying thermal and electromagnetic interferences.

"If true, this could certainly revolutionize space travel."

Shawyer also claims that he is just a few months away from publishing new results confirming that his drive works in a peer reviewed journal.

However scientists still have no idea how it actually works. NASA suggested that it could have something to do with the technology manipulating subatomic particles which constantly pop in and out of existence in empty space.

Prof Tajmer presented his findings to the 2015 American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics’ Propulsion and Energy Forum and Exposition this week.


Source URL: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/space/11769030/Impossible-rocket-drive-works-and-could-get-to-Moon-in-four-hours.html

Chickens first commercialized in Israel 2,300 years ago, researchers say

07/21/2015 14:58

Poultry farms did not reach Europe until 200 years later.

Cooking pot with chicken wings bones. (photo credit:FACULTY OF ARCHEOLOGY, HAIFA UNIVERSITY)

The world’s first period of industrial growth of chickens and eggs for mass consumption began in Israel’s Judean lowlands of Lakhish 2,300 years ago, 200 years before the practice reached Europe, researchers at the University of Haifa announced on Tuesday.

According to a study published by researchers from the university’s Zinman Institute of Archeology in the PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) journal, evidence suggests that chickens were first industrialized in Southern Israel during the Hellenistic period.

“Chicken remains found from the Hellenistic period (4th century BC) in the Judean lowlands shed light on the beginnings of this economic revolution, and show the earliest evidence of the western world’s large-scale industrial poultry,” the university said in a statement.

“The change was sharp and fast, and within a few decades, chickens were based throughout the Middle East. It seems residents cultivated a new breed of rooster particularly suitable for commercial growth.”

The researchers said the findings shed new light on the beginnings of the economic exploitation of roosters, and then chickens, tracking its rise from the Mediterranean to Europe.

“Hundreds of years of gradual acclimatization of roosters in the southern Mediterranean Levant, along with the gradual adoption of this animal in the Middle Eastern economy, probably created a strain of rooster suitable for economic exploitation,” the researchers concluded.

“Globalization that characterized the Hellenistic regime in our region, compounded with developments in international science and commerce, created the right conditions for change in the status of the rooster to generate income, and serve as food.”

Chickens were first raised in the Far East and South East Asia 8,000 years ago, reaching the Middle East in small pockets 5,000 years later. At that time, the researchers said the animals were considered exotic, and were primarily used for worship and cockfights.

It was previously unknown when and where chickens became mass produced for consumption.

However, Haifa University’s Prof. Ayelet Gilboa and Prof. Guy Bar-Oz, said 2,300-year-old chicken bones from the Hellenistic period unearthed near underground ancient breeding facilities in a Judean settlement in Lakhish indicated that chicken exports played a key role in the community’s economic development.

“During this time the chicken was very rare in Europe,” Gilboa said.

“Plenty of bones, along with signs of fire and slaughter, indicate that the chickens were also eaten on site. The large quantity of bones reinforces the assumption that some of the major industries used the chickens for export.”

Moreover, Bar-Oz said wall paintings and figurines of roosters discovered during excavations in the area also constitute compelling evidence of the importance of chickens to the ancient city’s economy.

Additionally, analysis of the bones found at the site determined that female chickens were raised to produce mass quantities of eggs.

“In light of these discoveries, the researchers conducted a comprehensive survey of no less than 230 sites in the southern Levant, from the 2nd millennium BC,” the university said in a statement.

“The findings showed that during the Hellenistic period there was a dramatic leap, both in the percentage of chickens, and the percentage of chicken sites.”

The researchers added that comparable chicken facilities did not reach Europe for another two centuries

Source URL: http://www.jpost.com/Israel-News/Culture/Chickens-first-commercialized-in-Israel-2300-years-ago-researchers-say-409671

From the WebMD Daily Bite: Raspberry Bars


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From the Daily Bite | Raspberry Bars

Tart raspberry filling is swirled into a low-fat cream filling in these beautiful bars. They’re a festive treat for a summer picnic or party.


· 3/4 cup white whole-wheat flour

· 1/2 cup chopped pecans

· 2 tablespoons granulated sugar

· 1/2 teaspoon salt

· 3 tablespoons cold butter, cut into small pieces

· 2 tablespoons ice water

· 1/2 teaspoon vanilla extract

· 2 teaspoons unflavored gelatin

· 2 tablespoons water

· 3 cups fresh raspberries, divided

· 1/2 cup granulated sugar

· 4 tablespoons nonfat cream cheese, softened

· 2 tablespoons low-fat milk

· 1 tablespoon confectioners’ sugar


· Step 1 * To prepare crust: Preheat oven to 400°F. Coat an 8-inch-square baking pan with cooking spray.

· Step 2 * Place flour, pecans, 2 tablespoons sugar and salt in a food processor; process until the nuts are finely ground. Add butter one piece at a time, pulsing once or twice after each addition, until incorporated. Add ice water and vanilla and pulse just until the dough starts to come together. Transfer to the prepared pan. Press evenly and firmly into the pan to form a bottom crust.

· Step 3 * Bake the crust until it looks set, but not browned, about 15 minutes. Let cool on a wire rack.

· Step 4 * To prepare raspberry filling: Sprinkle gelatin over 2 tablespoons water in a small bowl; let stand, stirring once or twice, while you prepare the rest of the filling.

· Step 5 * Reserve 16 raspberries. Puree the remaining raspberries in a food processor until smooth. Transfer to a medium saucepan and stir in 1/2 cup sugar. Cook over medium heat until bubbling. Stir in the gelatin mixture and cook, stirring, until the gelatin is melted, about 1 minute.

· Step 6 * Fill a large bowl with ice water. Pour the raspberry mixture into a medium bowl and set it in the bowl of ice water. Refrigerate, stirring occasionally with a rubber spatula, until the mixture thickens to the consistency of loose jam and is beginning to set around the edges, about 30 minutes.

· Step 7 * Meanwhile, beat cream cheese, milk and confectioners’ sugar in a medium bowl with an electric mixer until smooth.

· Step 8 * Spread the thickened raspberry filling evenly over the crust. Dollop the cream cheese mixture over the filling. Draw the tip of a sharp knife or skewer through the two fillings to create a swirled effect. Nestle the reserved berries into the filling, evenly spacing them so each bar will be topped with a berry when cut. Refrigerate until the bars are completely set, about 3 hours. Cut into 16 bars, one raspberry per bar.

Recipe Highlights

Prep Time: 25

·  Lower Cholesterol 

 Low Sodium 

 Lower Calorie 

 Lower Saturated Fat 

 Lower Carb/Low GI 

 Dairy

Nutritional Information:

Makes: 16 bars

· 100 Cals | 5g Fat | 6mg Cholesterol | 14g Carbs | 2g Protein | 100mg Sodium

© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
For more recipes go to EatingWell.com

Source URL: http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/raspberry-cream-bars?ecd=wnl_dab_070415&ctr=wnl-dab-070415_ld-stry&mb=Rtm8zzqoAADhLehufbBRvRXFE73IOX1cv05X0O41DTA%3d

Zesty Dill Potato Salad

Zesty Dill Potato Salad

WebMD Recipe from EatingWell.com

Total Time: 35 mins

Red potatoes are a perfect choice in this salad because they keep their shape when sliced and they add color. Leftover meat or chicken may be added to this salad for a main dish.


· 1 pound medium red potatoes, scrubbed

· 2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar

· 1 tablespoon white-wine vinegar

· 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil

· ¼ cup red bell pepper, diced*

· ¼ cup green bell pepper, diced*

· ¼ cup scallions, chopped

· 1 tablespoon fresh dill, chopped

· freshly ground white or black pepper, to taste

· salt, to taste

* Red and green pepper may be omitted, or remain, in addition to ⅛ to ¼ cup chopped jalapeno chiles from a jar or canned; just so long as they are cooked and skin removed.

Step 1 · Boil potatoes in salted water in a saucepan until tender, about 20 minutes. Drain and let stand until cool enough to handle. Cut potatoes in half lengthwise, then cut into approximately 1/2-inch slices. Place in a serving bowl.

Step 2 · Sprinkle the potatoes with balsamic vinegar, white-wine vinegar and oil, tossing gently to coat. Add red and green bell peppers, scallions, dill and pepper and toss gently to mix. Taste and adjust seasonings. Serve at room temperature.

© Meredith Corporation. All rights reserved. Used with permission.
For more recipes go to EatingWell.com
Source URL http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/zesty-dill-potato-salad?ecd=wnl_dab_062115&ctr=wnl-dab-062115_ld-stry&mb=Rtm8zzqoAADhLehufbBRvRXFE73IOX1cv05X0O41DTA%3d

What Do Crickets Eat?



466px-Snodgrass_Gryllus_assimilisOne question lead to another, and before you knew it, here was another article for the Ginger Jar. This is one of those questions you never quite formed in your head, or even had the notion to ask your mother. So, here it is.

Crickets are omnivores and scavengers feeding on organic materials, as well as decaying plant material, fungi, and seedling plants.

Sources: Wikipedia – http://www.ask.com/wiki/Cricket_(insect)

  1. Jan 23, 2009 … 40 000 crickets eat a whole head of lettuce in less than one hour. We speed it up to … why, why do you have 40k crickets?! lizard food farm?
  2. Related Questions:
  3. Source: Wikipedia
  4. Go to: Ask Encyclopedia · Images · Videos
  5. Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as true crickets), are insects somewhat related to grasshoppers, and more closely related to katydids or bush crickets (family Tettigoniidae) and Weta (families Anostostomatidae and Rhaphidophoridae). They have somewhat flattened bodies and long antennae. There are more than 900 species of crickets. They tend to be nocturnal and are often confused with grasshoppers because they have a similar body structure including jumping hind legs. Crickets are not harmfu… Read More »
  6. Cricket (insect)

What do Crickets Eat – Pestnet


Crickets are omnivorous, meaning they eat plants and meat. They are capable of causing a lot of damage to a yard or home because of the wide range of things …


Pax Magna Carta! Hooray World!


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 MagnaCarteG_600x1126[1]by Lynden R.C. Rodriguez, OCDS The members of the Magna Carta Project at WikiTree.com are entering the last and final leg of the project. It is a race against time to get all of the hereditary connections between the over 200 Gateway Ancestors that immigrated to the New World, connected to the Magna Carta Surety Barons that made King John sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede, England. The 800th Anniversary is June 15, 2015. The Anniversary is not just for Britain, and the United States, but the whole world. It is a vital piece of world history, and an origination document that was, and still is, a major forerunner of the Mayflower Compact and the Declaration of Independence. All three documents are the envy of the world, and many countries have incorporated part, if not all into their constitutions. This list also includes Russia. Unfortunately, not all world constitutions are enforced equally. But Pax Magna Carta! Hurray World! To give a short view of the situation, one needs to have a little lesson in American History; and no, this will not be boring. When Great Britain began to colonize the New World, it colonized not thirteen, but over 75. So, why were these thirteen colonies rebellious, and how did they hold together to become a nation? These were very diverse groups, from New England to the Southern Colonies. Also bear in mind these same differences were to later erupt in the American Civil War. There were often as many reasons for migrating to the New World as there were individuals that moved there. Many of these people may not have thought of themselves as colonists, or that they were doing anything unusual. These were just seeking a way to make ends meet. They may have had means, very good means at that, but there were still reasons why they left the Old World and England in particular. The colonists were many times from very good families, many of them descended from Royalty; but for usually economic reasons, they emigrated from Great Britain. One prime reason given for immigration was because people were seeking freedom to practice their region, and be free of government interference. Another underlying reason may be given to the practice of primogenitor, the giving of all goods and properties to the eldest son, or sometimes daughter, and leaving the other children without and having to fend for themselves to make their own livelihoods. In an earlier article this writer spoke of those Magna Carta Barons who forced an unreasonable monarch to sign a reasonable and democratic document. But at the time the English began to people the North American Atlantic seaboard, no one was thinking about the Magna Carta, but of their pocketbooks. Great Britain was vested in expanding their interests elsewhere, and battling other people to subject them to the English way of life and providing new roads to commerce. In order to do so, they had to pull their manpower and resources from the American Colonies in order to subject other countries that were not so naturally docile. This all took place over many years, so that by the time the British Government returned to consider their foundling colonies, the Americans had created a going illegal concern in the rum trade and slavery. It is what has come to be known as the infamous Rum Triangle[i], What then happened was England began to be more troubled by the news coming out of their American Colonies. Iconic 1846 lithograph by Nathaniel Currier entitled "The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor"; the phrase "Boston Tea Party" had not yet become standard. Contrary to Currier's depiction, few of the men dumping the tea were actually disguised as Indians (Wikipedia Commons)Suddenly, English men that had settled in the American Colonies were treated as less than English men, and that was something many colonists would not tolerate. Plus, there were taxes laid upon taxes on all goods, and the colonies could not export or import from any other nation than Great Britain. That would definitely make the bristles stand up on the back of any English man’s neck. That was what all the fuss was about with the Boston Tea Party, with English tea being poured into the bay. For centuries after, and I heard not so many decades ago, there is still the tinge of tea upon the rocks in Boston Bay. The British Government began to bring to bear their military upon the rebellious colonists. It was not long before the “shot heard round the world[ii]” was fired, and the American Revolution began. This, generally speaking, was the timbre of the times in New England and the Southern Colonies. But what does all of this have to do with the Magna Carta? Everything! Many people who journeyed to the New World were descendants of the Kings and Queens of Europe, and most, if not all, descended from Charlemagne. And many people who came were looking for a different way of life – not necessarily the kind of life they had once lived in Britain and Europe. It was the moment the Founding Fathers[iii], took to write a whole new venue for living. That was the birth of the Declaration of Independence, the grandchild of the Magna Carta. Amongst those forebears to first arrive on these shores are those that are called Gateway Ancestors in genealogical circles. There are over some 200 names of people descended from the Magna Carta Surety Barons and they are listed in such titles as Magna Carta Ancestry, Royal Ancestry: A Study in Colonial and Medieval Families, Vols. I – V, and The Royal Descents of 600 Immigrants. These Gateway Ancestors, together with their lineage, are the focus of the Magna Carta Project; and everyone is welcome to come to see what the Project is creating ahead of the 800th Anniversary of the Magna Carta coming June 2015. [i] The Rum Triangle was based in sugar, which was plentiful in the New World, and was the link in the infamous trade between Europe, the Americas and Africa of rum and slaves, Rum is the product made from molasses, which is a by-made from sugar. It was the American Colonies, a sort of forerunner of moonshine produced during Prohibition, and if illegally produced is still illegal. Source URL: http://www1.american.edu/ted/RUM.HTM [ii] shot heard round the world: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shot_heard_round_the_world [iii] See the 1776 Project at WikiTree.

I will Awake the Dawn! Feb 18, Morning Prayer for Wednesday of the 0th week of Lent


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Morning Prayer for Ash Wednesday: God, come to my assistance.– Lord, make haste to help me.


This message was sent using ShareThis (http://www.sharethis.com)

Who are the Magna Carta Surety Barons?


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King John Signing the Magna Carta antioligarch.wordpress.com

King John Signing the Magna Carta

Find a Grave Maud Matilda de Saint Valery

Photo at Find a Grave Maud Matilda de Saint Valery

That is all there were ~ twenty-five Barons who stood against King John and his greediness and bloodthirstiness, and together they made an oath to enforce Magna Carta. That is why they are called the Surety Barons of Magna Carta.
But as always, the modern egocentric’s question is, “Who are these people, and what do they mean to me?” But the correct response is the holistic, “What is the purpose of Magna Carta?”
Though I am a member of the Magna Carta Project, at WikiTree that doesn’t mean I have all the answers, by any means. Even I had questions when I first became involved with the project. In my study of the Magna Carta and the Barons, I became intrigued by the story of Maud (Matilda) de St. Valerie, who was starved to death in a dungeon, together with her eldest grown son, because King John had learned of her remarks against him. Remarks mind you – not even deeds. There was a very great need for the law to cover not only the peasants, gentry, and Barons, but the King as well.
According to the Magna Carta Project at WikiTree.com:
“The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King (John) and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Norman came. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws – some copied, some remembered, some old, and some new.”
There are specific issues addressed in the Magna Carta as to freedoms for the Church to remain free from royal interference, especially in the matter of election of bishops; no taxes except fuedal dues , and anything over and above that must have consent of the Great Council or Parliament. Everyone was to be afforded due process and trial by jury, and weights and measures were to be standardized “throughout the realm.”

Cofre Castle within whose dungeon Maud de Braose and her son William were Starved to Death Wikipedia 220px-Outer_bailey_wall_west_of_the_outer_gatehouse_corfe_castle

Cofre Castle within whose dungeon Maud de Braose and her son William were Starved to Death Wikipedia

King John in 1205 quarreled with then Pope Innocent III about who should be Archbishop of Canterbury. King John would not allow the Pope’s representative to set foot in England, and for this the King was excommunicated. This was a bit harsh, even for King John, and he later made amends. However, the Pope continued to demand money of the King and his people. But King John’s answer, in order to pay these and other demands, was to levy taxes that were exorbitant , and extortionate . His reprisals against defaulters were ruthless and his idea of justice was avaricious .
One of King John’s acts to regain lost lands of Aquitaine, Poitou and Anjou was to tax the Barons. A bitter quarrel broke out over the methods used to levy those taxes. It was then the Barons realized other ways had to be considered in order to curb the King and to force him to govern his people by the old ways, the “old English laws” that were in place prior to 1066 .
When all else failed, the Barons went to war against King John, and captured London in May 1215. By June of that year they took King John by surprise at Windsor and forced him to a meeting at Runnymede. King John signed and sealed the Magna Carta on June 10, 1215. The Barons signed their own agreement to enforce it.
And then… King John waged war against the Barons…
In the Next edition of the
Magna Carta Project here at the Ginger Jar:
“Who are the Magna Carta Gateway Ancestors?”
Works Cited:
• Encarta Dictionary: English (North America). Released: 05/16/2013; Accessed 18 September 2014. Source URL: http://www.fileheap.com/dbquery/1/encarta+dictionary+english+north+america
• The Magna Carta Project. @WikiTree.com. Source URL http://www.wikitree.com/
• Maud (Matilda) de Braose. @Wikipedia. Accessed 30 January 2015.
• Maud de Saint Valery. Find a Grave. Accessed January 30, 2015. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=86930058
Site of Interest: Official Website for the 800th Anniversary of Magna Carta http://magnacarta800th.com/


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